More than 200 cultivars of D. zibethinus exist in Thailand. Temperature significantly affected growth of S. cerevisiae EC-1118 regardless of pH with a higher temperature leading to a faster cell death. The 6 additional species included in Durio s.l. [86], The increased demand for durians in China has prompted a shift in Malaysia from small-scale durian orchards to large-scale industrial operations, with forests being cleared to make way for large durian plantations. [69], In Southeast Asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century. [44] A saying in Indonesian, durian jatuh sarung naik, meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. Tropical Science, 8,6-10. Empirical Formula 19:22. It instructs the reader to boil the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with the roots of Durio zibethinus, Nephelium longan, Nephelium mutabile and Artocarpus integrifolia, and drink the decoction or use it as a poultice. seeds are a waste from durian paste processing that could find applications in food or non-food industries. This might be also responsible for significant (p < 0.05) changes of the solubility of the durian seed gum as a function of different drying conditions. Pregnant women or people with high blood pressure are traditionally advised not to consume durian. The durian is cultivated in tropical regions, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop below 22 Â°C (72 Â°F). For some people in northern Thailand, the preference is for the fruit to be soft and aromatic. 2006). [10] Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. Prof. Dorian A. Canelas. For example, in Singapore the strong demand for high quality cultivars such as the D24 (Sultan), and Musang King (Mao Shan Wang) has resulted in typical retail prices of between S$8 to S$15 (US$5 to US$10) per kilogram of whole fruit in 2007. Uncooked durian seeds are potentially toxic due to cyclopropene fatty acids and should not be ingested. In the species name, zibethinus refers to the Indian civet, Viverra zibetha. The distinctive fruit has a spiky outer covering and smells of rotten eggs. The flesh is medium-thick, solid, yellow in colour, and sweet. This work represents the first study on the biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine via simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) with non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Oenococcus oeni PN4. A discussion on the fruit of the durian (Durio zibethinus Murr).See also Absts. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. [3][4] Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions. Exploring the Nutritional Contents and Benefits of Durian (Durio zibethinus)Tan Mei Chian & Shyamala Asohan. Data of that type can be determined through an experimental technique called elemental analysis. composition durian skin extract methanol extract Prior art date 2005-08-19 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. [28][84], The Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. In fact, to eat Durians is a new sensation worth a voyage to the East to experience. Tryptophan is required to increase the level of serotonin and melatonin. [61] Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to sayur, an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish. A discussion on the fruit of the durian (Durio zibethinus Murr).See also Absts. ^ The traveller Wallace cites is Linschott (Wallace's spelling for Jan Huyghen van Linschoten), whose name appears repeatedly in Internet searches on durian, with such citations themselves tracing back to Wallace. Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry. The Kadayawan Festival is an annual celebration featuring the durian in Davao City. The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. How does it put off such a rich array of offensiveness? Off-season durian production Somporn Na Nakorn1* and Chaiporn Chalumpak 2 1, 2, Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand 80110 Somporn , N. N. and Chalumpak , C. (2015). "[66] The Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India published in 1563. [68] In the 18th century, Johann Anton Weinmann considered the durian to belong to Castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut. Although the durian is not native to Thailand, Thailand is ranked the world's number one exporter of durian, producing around 700,000 tonnes of durian per year, 400,000 tonnes of which are exported to mainland China and Hong Kong. In Vietnam, the cultivar, Musang King, is a common variety preferred by consumers. [10] The degree of ripeness has an effect on the flavour as well. [10] The latter belief can be traced back at least to the 18th century when Rumphius stated that one should not drink alcohol after eating durians as it will cause indigestion and bad breath. N GCV 39,45 25,65 14,38 7,4 5,2 43,92 6,01 49,07 1,0 14,68 d.a.f dry ash free basis, diff. D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107189. Preparation of Durian Skin Nanofibre (DSNF) and Its Effect on the Properties of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Biocomposites ... CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MORPHOLOGICAL, SIZE AND DIMENSION ANALYSIS The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents in DSF and DSNF are presented in Table 2. Durian." Some individuals are unable to differentiate these smells and find this fruit noxious, whereas others find it pleasant and appealing. [30], Known locally as "durian IOI", this variety has a round shape, medium size, green and yellow outer skin colour, and has flesh easy to dislodge. [37] Malaysia and Indonesia follow, both producing about 265,000 tonnes each. Archerite (KH 2 PO 4 ), calcite (CaCO 3 ), chlorocalcite (KCaCl 3 ), struvite (KMgPO 4 .6H 2 O) and sylvite So this research aimed at producing a high surface area of AC with combining chemical activation process using H3PO4 and physical activation using N2. testudinarius. [24] Since the 1920s, there have been more than 100 registered cultivars in Malaysia,[25] and by 1992 there were up to 193;[26] many superior cultivars have been identified through competitions held at the annual Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture, and Agrotourism Show. [10], A common local belief is that the durian is harmful when eaten with coffee[44] or alcoholic beverages. Some species grow so tall that they can only be collected once they have fallen to the ground, whereas most cultivars of D. zibethinus are nearly always cut from the tree and allowed to ripen while waiting to be sold. In 1741, Herbarium Amboinense by the German botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius was published, providing the most detailed and accurate account of durians for over a century. Es durian (durian ice cream) is a popular dessert in Indonesia, sold at street side stall in Indonesian cities, especially in Java. composition durian skin extract methanol extract Prior art date 2005-08-19 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. [47] He cited one traveller from 1599:[b] "it is of such an excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all other fruits of the world, according to those who have tasted it. [42], The durian is a seasonal fruit, unlike some other non-seasonal tropical fruits such as the papaya which are available throughout the year. 36. [50] The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid. Replacing partial Portland cement by rice husk ash reduced alkaline pore water in the composite, thus, reduced breaking the link between the individual fiber cells. The durian fruit can hang from any branch, and matures roughly three months after pollination. Abandoned Application number US11/208,148 Inventor Jesse Leverett Amitabh Chandra Jatinder Rana David Fast Stephen Missler … Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre ), 5% fat and 1% protein. Durian was introduced into Australia in the early 1960s and clonal material was first introduced in 1975. The natives give it honourable titles, exalt it, and make verses on it. [3], The earliest known European reference to the durian is the record of Niccolò de' Conti, who travelled to Southeast Asia in the 15th century. [71], The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits",[5] a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. Durian peel silage can alleviate a mal-nutrition in ruminants during dry season or flooding time. Tempoyak refers to fermented durian, usually made from lower quality durian unsuitable for direct consumption. Glucan and xylan accounted for approximately 93% of the total carbohydrates in the durian peels from both cultivars. [47], b. It can be seen from Table 2 that the cellulose content in DSNF is about 2% lower than in DSF. Malaysia negotiated a deal with China to export the whole fruit frozen for the first time to China starting in 2019, previously only Thailand was permitted to export the whole fruit to China. [28] Another hybrid, Chantaburi No. [10] Durian consumers express preferences for specific cultivars, which fetch higher prices in the market.[23]. [55], One of the names Thailand contributed to the list of storm names for Western North Pacific tropical cyclones was 'Durian',[79] which was retired after the second storm of this name in 2006. [3][44][45], This strong odour can be detected half a mile away by animals, thus luring them. A common saying is that a durian has eyes, and can see where it is falling, because the fruit allegedly never falls during daylight hours when people may be hurt. In the same year, the United States imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the European Community imported 500 tonnes. Inside there are five things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours. Even apart from the smell, durians are a scientific marvel. 2007). [10] Among the thirty known species of Durio, nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, Durio lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. [80][81], In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) [28] On 22 May 2012, two other cultivars from Thailand that also lack the usual odour, Long Laplae and Lin Laplae, were presented to the public by Yothin Samutkhiri, governor of Uttaradit Province from where these cultivars were developed locally, while he announced the dates for the annual durian fair of Laplae District, and the name given to each cultivar. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, and has been described variously as rotten onions, turpentine, and raw sewage. The first thing we need to do is determine the molar masses of all the compounds in this reaction. [87], a. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a "good" durian. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of it the less you feel inclined to stop. These species are commonly distributed in Brunei, and together with other species like D. testudinarius and D. dulcis constitute a genetically diverse crop source.[36]. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years. [11][12] Durio s.s. and Boschia have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. Scientists examine what chemicals make the Asian fruit smell like “turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock” In 1929, J. D. Gimlette wrote in his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures that the durian fruit must not be eaten with brandy. 6. [42] Many consumers in Singapore are nevertheless quite willing to spend up to around S$75 (US$50) on a single purchase of about half a dozen of the favoured fruit to be shared by family members.[23]. Sometimes the ash of the burned rind is added to special cakes. [73] Likewise, the oddly shaped Esplanade building in Singapore (Theatres on the Bay) is often called "The Durian" by locals,[73] and "The Big Durian" is the nickname of Jakarta, Indonesia.[74]. The most cultivated species is Durio zibethinus. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). It is the most popular seasonal fruit in South East Asian countries. Pang, Taylor’s University, Chemical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, No.1 ... hemicellulose, wax, and oil covering the external surface of the fiber cell wall [8]. 1, a cultivar without the characteristic odour. Dietary fibers, minerals, and trace metals were comparable. are now considered by some to comprise their own genus, Boschia. 517 Accesses. However, in more recent circumscriptions of Durioneae, the tribe into which Durio and its sister taxa fall, fleshy arils and spiny fruits are derived within the clade. durian fruit (Vangnai, 1995). [31] Another common variety is "Udang merah", or red shrimp, found in the states of Pahang and Johor. [27], By 2007, Thai government scientist Songpol Somsri had crossbred more than ninety varieties of durian to create Chantaburi No. A study using durian peel waste gave a good result, like high carbon composition but had a low surface area. Different durian varieties from Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia vary in their carbohydrate content by 16-29%, fat content by 2-5%, protein content by 2-4%, dietary fibre content by 1-4%, and caloric value by 84-185 kcal per 100 grams. The mechanical and chemical composition of the two soil types found in the designated sites are given in Table 3. The expansion of the durian industry and the advancement in processing of durian products has significantly expanded due to international trade. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Durians are also a rich source of volatile compounds that can benefit human health and the food industries. The cocktail of compounds that gives the durian fruit its notorious stench has been identified by ... of Munich in Germany has used a combination of GC–MS and aroma extract dilution analysis to try and identify the chemical culprits. The average [3] The most complete description of the medicinal use of the durian as remedies for fevers is a Malay prescription, collected by Burkill and Haniff in 1930. It also helps bind and eliminates cancer-causing chemicals from the gut. [10], In 2019, researchers from the Technical University of Munich identified ethanethiol and its derivatives as a reason for its fetid smell. [16][17], A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma lyases – which regulate the odour of organosulfur compounds – may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. [5] Ikan brengkes tempoyak is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in Sumatra. [38] Chantaburi in Thailand holds the World Durian Festival in early May each year. It can be seen that durian peels have rich hemi-cellulose content. It was called "Durian Botak" ('Bald Durian'). I'm going to write the molar masses over here, all in one spot. [54][55] While some of these animals eat the fruit and dispose of the seed under the parent plant, others swallow the seed with the fruit, and then transport it some distance before excreting, with the seed being dispersed as a result. [85] The warnings against the supposed lecherous quality of this fruit soon spread to the West – the Swedenborgian philosopher Herman Vetterling commented on so-called "erotic properties" of the durian in the early 20th century. Durian has been recognized as an important fruit especially for the underlying nutritional attributes of the fruit. [62] Dried durian flesh can be made into kripik durian (durian chips). Table 1 shows the chemical composition analysis results for durian peel and fiber as reported by previous study [17–19] . Durians are also a rich source of volatile compounds that can benefit human health and the food industries. Mass Percent 9:58. [44] This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand. [50][53] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in a study of several varieties. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 inches) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs 1 to 3 kilograms (2 to 7 pounds). The durian seeds, which are the size of chestnuts, can be eaten whether they are boiled, roasted or fried in coconut oil, with a texture that is similar to taro or yam, but stickier. The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine. [49], Other comparisons have been made with the civet, sewage, stale vomit, skunk spray and used surgical swabs. [3] The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the North Sumatra province of Indonesia and Sarawak of Malaysia, while in the Moluccas islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to smoke fish. 100 g fresh fruit carries 147 calories.. were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) Optimum mechanical properties of bioplastic from Durian, like other tropical fruits such as Banana, avocado, and jackfruit, is high in energy, minerals, and vitamins. In addition to the chemical composition, drying process had a considerable effect on the molecular structure of durian seed gum as reported previously . The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), glucose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xylose (0.3-3.21%). Most cultivars have a common name and a code number starting with "D". The wide range of descriptions for the odour of durian may have a great deal to do with the variability of durian odour itself. 6 Citations. [44] An alternative method is to eat the durian in accompaniment with mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling properties. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect … A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines. (2012). Of this, Malaysia exported 35,000 tonnes in 1999. [56] The thorny, armoured covering of the fruit discourages smaller animals; larger animals are more likely to transport the seeds far from the parent tree.[57]. [10] The leaves are evergreen, elliptic to oblong and 10–18 centimetres (4–7 inches) long. Effect of manure and chemical fertilizer on vegetative growth of off-season durian production. Despite its great local popularity, the raw fruit is forbidden from some establishments such as hotels, subways and airports, including public transportation in Southeast Asia. We’ll tell you the results of a chemical analysis. Effect of manure and chemical fertilizer on vegetative growth of off-season durian production. [7][8] The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the civet (Viverra zibetha), known for its odour. Yuyun Lu, Marilyn Kai Wen Voon, Jian-Yong Chua, Dejian Huang, Pin-Rou Lee, Shao-Quan Liu, The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s00253-017-8527-7, 101, 21, (7853-7863), (2017). There are 13 common Malaysian varieties having favourable qualities of colour, texture, odour, taste, high yield, and resistance against various diseases. [10], Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. [3] Four hundred years ago, it was traded across present-day Myanmar, and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand and South Vietnam. Lu Y(1), Voon MKW(1), Chua JY(1), Huang D(1)(2), Lee PR(3), Liu SQ(4)(5). This might be also responsible for significant (p < 0.05) changes of the solubility of the durian seed gum as a function of different drying conditions. The effects of co- and sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia kluyveri on chemical compositions of durian wine. Associate Professor of the Practice. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). [23] With an average weight of about 1.5 kg (3 lb 5 oz), a durian fruit would therefore cost about S$12 to S$22 (US$8 to US$15). There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet.
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