Beginning in 44 AD, Mark worked with Paul and Barnabas before returning to Jerusalem. Fourteen of the New Testament Epistles were written by Paul. by Abelard Reuchlin. Copyright © 2020 A Faithful Version. Six of them were chosen apostles of Jesus Christ. Yet, in all the commentaries that have been written about the New Testament, one obvious fact has been emphasized: God used only eight men to write the entire New Testament. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books of the New Testament is found in a letter written by Athanasius, a 4th-century bishop of Alexandria, dated to 367 AD. Add to all of this the fact that the apostles had to deal with corruption and apostasy within the ranks of the Church itself. Without it our Bible would be quite incomplete—like a stirring story without an ending or a drama without its climax. Who were they? “You read along and you say, I don’t know how many animals Noah took on the ark with him,” he says. Of the three major blocks of source material that scholars agree comprise the Bible’s first five books, the first was believed to have been written by a group of priests, or priestly authors, whose work scholars designate as “P.” A second block of source material is known as “D”—for Deuteronomist, meaning the author(s) of the vast majority of the book of Deuteronomy. Isaiah concludes his prophecy by showing that Jesus and His disciples would form the New Testament Church: “Behold, I [Jesus Christ] and the children [the disciples and apostles] whom the LORD has given Me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion” (Isa. All Rights Reserved. How is it that they will understand and the wicked will not? For you are witnesses of these things‘ ” (Luke 24:45-48). The next answers to the question of who wrote the Bible come from the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, generally believed to have been written during the Babylonian captivity in the middle of the sixth century B.C. Thirteen books in all, in fact. Three were eyewitnesses of Jesus’ life, His transfiguration and ministry—the apostles Peter, James and John. St. Irenaeus and Origin (d. 253) again support this authorship. The prophet Isaiah actually foretold that the disciples of Jesus Christ would write what would become the New Testament: “Bind up the testimony, seal the law among My disciples” (Isa. However, it is probable that he replaced James as the overseer of the Church in Jerusalem after James was martyred in 62 AD. Moses was considered a prophet par excellence because 1) he spoke to God face-to-face, 2) wrote the Law, 3) canonized the first five books of the Bible and, 4) led the children of Israel to the Promised Land. Since Jesus is “the way, the truth and the life,” He was and is a true Witness of God. The New Testament teaches nothing New...Jesus' Sermon on the Mount comes straight from the Old Testament‏, Christianity, 166 replies Two puzzling New Testament passages. Luke’s account in the first chapter of Acts provides clues: “And after entering Jerusalem, they [the apostles and other disciples] went up into the upper chamber, where both Peter and James were staying; and John and Andrew; Philip and Thomas; Bartholomew and There was no question that God was working through Peter, John, and the rest of the apostles by the power of the Holy Spirit. Paul remained in Tarsus until 40 AD. Him has God exalted by His right hand to be a Prince and Savior, to give repentance and remission of sins to Israel. He wrote of himself in many of his fourteen Epistles. As a tax collector, Matthew must have been well educated and skilled in record keeping. Opposition ranged from the direct—imprisonment or martyrdom—to challenges from false teachers such as Simon Magus. ... Luke is credited with writing not only his gospel but the New Testament Book of Acts as well. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! A volume of the Talmud, the collection of Jewish laws recorded between the 3rd and 5th centuries A.D., dealt with this inconsistency by explaining that Joshua (Moses’ successor as leader of the Israelites) likely wrote the verses about Moses’ death. Just as Moses wrote and canonized the first five books of the Old Testament, they would help write and then finalize the complete New Testament. The issue of who wrote a book of the Bible is no less complex. But as a scholar of the New Testament, what I argue is that the Gospels offer an important insight into … When compared to the account in Luke 6, Matthew’s account is a detailed, almost word-for-word rendition of what Jesus taught His disciples. The New Testament and all the characters in it – Jesus, all the Josephs, all the Marys, all the disciples, apostles, Paul, and John the Baptist – are all fictional.”. The Nature of Paul’s Epistles: During the next twenty years of the apostle Paul’s ministry, he and his helpers traveled extensively. from RomanPisoHomepageBookshelf Website The authorship of the New Testament books have been discovered. James was beheaded by Herod in 44 AD (Acts 12:1-2). As we have seen, the apostle Peter was one of the special eyewitnesses, along with the apostle John and his brother James, who saw the glory of Jesus’ transfiguration on the holy mount (Matt. 2, pp. The Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, narrates the history of the people of Israel over about a millennium, beginning with God’s creation of the world and humankind, and contains the stories, laws and moral lessons that form the basis of religious life for both Jews and Christians. Indeed, “God works in mysterious ways.”. Luke himself offers important information about the writing of his Gospel. Jesus sent the twelve apostles, saying: “Do not go into the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter into a city of the Samaritans; but go instead to the lost sheep of the house of Israel [not to the house of Judah only]. The Roman Piso Family Authored the New Testament. These are believed to have been written between A.D. 50-60, making them the earliest known evidence for Christianity. [Such a] connection naturally accounts for the ‘eyewitness vividness’ of many of Mark’s episodes….The inclusion of Aramaic expressions attributed to Jesus (5:41; 7:11, 34; 14:36), not found in the other gospels, may well be due to the fact that Mark recalled ‘vividly the tone of the Apostle in relating the Master’s solemn words.’… Peter’s traditional connection with the [G]ospel is supported by the fact that it conforms to the outline of the story as given by Peter in Acts 10:34-43. Mary went to Jesus’ tomb early in the morning (John 20:1-18), where Jesus appeared to her first. But for more than a century, scholars have generally agreed that the Gospels, like many of the books of the New Testament, were not actually written by the people to whom they are attributed. It brings the eschatological expectations of the Church to their fitting conclusion [with the return of Jesus Christ to earth and the establishment of the kingdom of God]” (Hiebert, An Introduction to the New Testament, vol. The 27-book New Testament was first formally canonized during the councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397) in North Africa. The book of Revelation, also known as the Apocalypse, is the most intriguing, mysterious and enigmatic book in the Bible. Since the name of the author cannot with unquestioned certainty be deduced from the contents of his work, the uniform traditional ascription of it to Luke must represent information known from the first century” (Hiebert, An Introduction to the New Testament, vol. If the Gospels had been anonymous at first and their authorship had been fabricated later, the same Gospel would almost certainly have been ascribed to different authors in different regions. Abelard Reuchlin. The New Testament, as usually received in the Christian Churches, is made up of twenty-seven different books attributed to eight different authors, six of whom are numbered among the Apostles (Matthew, John, Paul, James, Peter, Jude) and two among their immediate disciples (Mark, Luke). © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. James and John were called the sons of thunder because they preached the Word of God with great power. Just as the Old Testament chronicles the story of the Israelites in the millennium or so leading up to the birth of Jesus Christ, the New Testament records Jesus’s life, from his birth and teachings to his death and later resurrection, a narrative that forms the fundamental basis of Christianity. In the third chapter of Acts, Peter referred to Jesus as “the Author of life Whom God has raised from the dead, whereof we are witnesses” (Acts 3:15). Because of the increase in the number of disciples, the apostles no doubt realized the need for a written compilation of Christ’s teachings—a uniform standard from which to teach new disciples. Both John Calvin and Martin Luther shared this judgment as far as the sixteenth century. And to say the least, it was an unpopular Gospel—one that challenged preexisting Messianic ideas and provoked outrage among the Jewish leadership. Now, we feel that it is time to put this information out on the Net. Afterwards, James believed, as did his other half-brothers, because all of Jesus’ brothers, along with His mother Mary, were in the assembly of the original 120 disciples mentioned in Acts 1:14. There were scores of additional eyewitnesses who authenticated the disciples’ testimony. On the night of His last Passover, Jesus told His apostles: “Truly, truly I say to you, the one who believes in Me shall also do the works that I do; and greater works than these shall he do because I am going to the Father” (John 14:12). As Hiebert has pointed out: “The New Testament is striking in that practically one-third of its contents is letters…. “For we did not follow cleverly concocted myths as our authority, when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His magnificent glory [in the transfiguration]…” (II Pet. It appears that before Jesus’ resurrection, they did not really believe He was the Messiah (John 7:1-6). Apparently the only Epistle that Paul wrote with his own hand was that addressed to the Galatians (Gal. Daniel tells half of the story and Revelation tells the rest. 8:15-16). When all of the events described in Revelation have been fulfilled, Jesus proclaimed that His work will be done—the end will have arrived. Who Really Wrote Luke? Other Key Eyewitnesses: Luke makes it clear that many of Christ’s disciples had taken it upon themselves to write accounts of what they had heard Jesus say and what they had seen Him do with their own eyes. ... Luke is credited with writing not only his gospel but the New Testament Book of Acts as well. During the period recorded in Acts 13 to the end of the book, Luke was, however, an eyewitness to the apostle Paul’s ministry. combined into the single, multi-layered work we know today. 12:4, 8-10). [It] is certain that Theophilus, the original recipient of the [G]ospel, knew the writer’s identity. This question is central to the authenticity of the New Testament as the inspired Word of God. Antoninus Pius, by the way, also wrote history under the name of Suetonius. The Greek word for a witness is marturos, which “signifies one that gives testimony to the truth at the expense of his life” (Cruden’s Complete Concordance, 1986, p. 754). Hiebert writes, “The book of Revelation is the true capstone of the Bible. 5:1-2). He writes: “The elders who are among you I exhort, even as a fellow elder, and an eyewitness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker of the glory that is about to be revealed. In both, the language is simple and direct, revealing the spiritual love and power of God the Father and Jesus Christ. In spite of all this evidence for Pauline authorship, few New Testament scholars today believe Paul wrote it. It is clear that they knew who he was and recognized his apostolic authority. Nobody we know. [The] use of the epistolary form … does not rob these writings of their authority as Scripture. 13-14, bold emphasis added). Because human testimony is sometimes fallible, God commanded that disputes and critical issues be settled on the word of two or three witnesses (see Deut. Under the New Covenant, believers become the children of God the Father through the begettal of the Holy Spirit. Of these, seven are gen… READ MORE: Inside the Conversion Tactics of the Early Christian Church. It is the only distinctively prophetic book of the New Testament. Rather, Luke used the accounts of numerous eyewitnesses to compile his Gospel. Archaeology and the study of written sources have shed light on the history of both halves of the Bible: the Old Testament, the story of the Jews’ highs and lows in the millennium or so before the birth of Jesus; and the New Testament, which documents the life and teachings of Jesus. After being baptized by Ananias, Saul remained in Damascus for a short time, testifying that Jesus was the Christ (Acts 9:19-22). From the introduction to his Gospel, we can conclude that Luke meant that the apostles were compiling and writing down the teachings of Jesus, which later became the Gospels (Luke 1:1-2). As brothers, they had a special relationship with Jesus. Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and Mary Magdalene: After the twelve apostles, perhaps the most important eyewitness was Mary, the mother of Jesus—contributing the account of her visit with Elizabeth; Elizabeth’s salutation to Mary; Mary’s hymn to God; the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem; the shepherds’ visit as Jesus lay in the manger; and the words of Simeon and Anna when Mary and Joseph presented Jesus at the Temple after Mary’s purification (Luke 1:39–2:35). As John was concluding his Gospel, he specifically stated that through belief in Christ and His words one could have eternal life: “But these [miracles] have been written, so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing, you may have life through His name” (John 20:31). Jesus told the apostles that they would be His witnesses after the Comforter came to reside within them: “But when the Comforter has come, which I will send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of the truth … that one shall bear witness of Me. They were to complete it. In giving themselves to the ministry of the Word, the apostles were writing their narratives. They are the ones who “keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ” and again, they are those who “keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus” (Rev. 2:1-23). Close it shut…. For starters, the apostles’ message was not limited to the Jews or to Israel, but was for the whole world. For you are witnesses of these things” (Luke 24:47-48). He usually dictated his Epistles to a scribe. For a few that don't seem to understand, this thread is discussing the New Testament and not the Tannakh(Old Testament) but to know exactly how and why the NT was prepared one should … The New Testament contains 27 different books written by nine different authors. From harsh slavery, God drew His chosen people, Israel, out of Egypt with powerful signs and wonders—the Passover itself, the crossing of the Red Sea, God thundering His Law from Mount Sinai, etc. For years, the book "The True Authorship of the New Testament" has been out and many persons have been discovering this as well. Without question, the apostles realized the magnitude of their work. In order to keep tax records for Herod Antipas, he would have had an excellent command of Greek. 5:13). Who wrote the New Testament? The Gospel of John is entirely different from the synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) in that it contains deeper spiritual teachings than the other Gospels. Four are called “Pastoral Epistles” because they were written to ministers who had worked with Paul: I and II Timothy, Titus and Philemon. There was no real outside opposition when it came to God’s Word. 1, p. 114). Hiebert writes: “Certain features are consistent with [the Gospel’s] traditional association with Peter…. In many passages of the Bible the voice of God is likened to thunder. Is the New Testament merely a collection of religious myths—or was it really written by the original disciples of Christ as eyewitness accounts of His ministry? Thus, the teachings of Jesus were written down from the beginning. The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts: Concerning Luke’s Gospel, Hiebert wrote: “Although the name of the author nowhere appears in it, the third [G]ospel does not present itself as an anonymous work…. 17:1-9). Revelation was written to reveal to the people of God what the world will be like in the end times. Undoubtedly, this is why the style and language of Peter’s Second Epistle is so different from that of his First Epistle. 8:18). [Jesus’] disciples were commissioned ‘to add to’ and ‘to complete’ the Bible. Scholars have spent their lives studying it, while rabbis, ministers and priests have focused on interpreting, teaching and preaching from its pages. Most people would probably say that Paul wrote it. All these were steadfastly continuing with one accord in prayer and supplications, together with the women, including Mary, the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers. An Introduction to the one who wrote the `` New Testament another of Isaiah ’ s undeniable influence, continue... You also shall bear witness, because you have been fulfilled ( Isa Gospels as know! To Gamaliel ’ s condemnation of false teachers. ) Epistles were written by nine different authors items. 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